Thursday, March 12, 2020: Rhetorical Appeals in “Speech to the Virginia Convention”


I hope you had a great early release day yesterday! Today, we will continue with Patrick Henry’s “Speech to the Virginia Convention.” Please also wish your first period classmate, Madison, a very happy birthday! 🙂 

Rhetorical Analysis of “Speech to the Virginia Convention”

Today, you will move on to identifying Henry’s use of ethos, pathos, and logos in the speech. Luckily, this should be fairly easy if you kept up with the annotations!

It’s much easier to identify the use of rhetorical appeals when they stand alone, such as in a review worksheet. However, for this assignment’s purposes, you will have to consider the audience’s perspective and decode Henry’s words to analyze the rhetorical appeals used.

Consider: Who is Patrick Henry’s audience? Think about the historical context we built yesterday – how do you think these men are feeling? Thinking? Worried about? They’re about to go against one of the most powerful military forces of this time!

When identifying rhetorical appeals, you must put yourself in the place of the audience. For example, a piece of text is not pathos necessarily because YOU felt “some type of way” about it – consider how Henry’s AUDIENCE would feel. What would scare them? Inspire them to fight?

Use the following information to guide your thinking as you complete the assignment:

ETHOS: Appeal to credibility, ethics, character

The ongoing establishment of a writer’s or speaker’s authority, credibility, and believability as he/she speaks or writes. Ethos appeals to ethics and character. Ethos seeks to persuade the reader that the writer/speaker can be trusted and believed due to his/her noble character or ethical ways in which he/she is presenting ideas.

Some Examples of Ethos:

  • Appeal to the writer’s/speaker’s believability, qualifications, character; relevant biographical information
  • Use of credible sources (experts, scholars)
  • Accurate citation of sources: gives credit where credit is due
  • Experience and authority: person knows the issues and has experience in the field
  • Appropriate language: uses language of the discipline
  • Appropriate tone: knows the audience and context of situation
  • Humility: is not arrogant
  • Uses tentative yet authoritative language; avoids sweeping statements like “Everyone is doing this,” “This is the only way,” “This will always work.” Instead says, “The research suggests that,” “Some experts believe,” “In my experience,” etc.

PATHOS: Appeal to emotion

The use of emotion and affect to persuade. Pathos appeals to the heart and to one’s emotions. Pathos seeks to persuade the reader emotionally. (Note that this can be ANY emotion.)

Some Examples of Pathos:

  • Appeal to the heart/emotion
  • Stories or testimonials
  • Personal anecdotes or stories
  • Personal connections
  • Imagery and figurative language that provokes an emotional response
  • Powerful words, phrases, or images that stir up emotion

LOGOS: Appeal to logic

The use of logic, rationality, and critical reasoning to persuade. Logos appeals to the mind and seeks to persuade the reader intellectually.

Some Examples of Logos:

  • Appeal to the mind/intellect
  • Draw from philosophy and logic
  • Facts
  • Statistics
  • If, then… statements
  • Definitions of terms
  • Explanation of ideas
  • Cause and effect
  • Logical reasons and explanations

Tuesday, March 10, 2020: “Speech to the Virginia Convention”

It’s Tuesday, so we’re starting with Lit Term Tuesday! Please be sure to get the notes from a friend if you were out today.

“Give me liberty or give me death!”

You may have heard this phrase before, which is the most famous line from Patrick Henry’s speech, “Speech to the Virginia Convention.” We will complete a first reading today, with a focus on identifying claim statements and evidence. Please also be on the lookout and annotating for rhetorical strategies and appeals used that we have covered in class (EPL, restatement, repetition, rhetorical question, etc.).

Monday, March 9, 2020: Start Unit 2

I hope you’re not to sleepy today because of Daylight Savings! I hope everyone had a great weekend with beautiful weather as well! 🙂

As usual, we will start the week with M.U.G. Monday. If you were out, please be sure to get the corrections and notes from a friend.

Flat style vector illustration, discuss social network, news, chat, dialogue speech bubblesToday, we will start on our next unit, The Power of Persuasion. This unit will focus on rhetoric, rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos, logos), and rhetorical devices and strategies. We will be reading primarily nonfiction texts, and you will analyze for rhetorical effectiveness. For our unit writing, you will write a persuasive speech on a topic of your choice.

But before we get there, today, we will introduce rhetoric and take notes. Note-taking is a crucial skill for college, as professors often lecture to a class without any aids (no PowerPoints, writing on the board, etc.). Today, we will cover four different ways to take notes — please choose that one that most appeals to you and your learning style and try one out today.

Here are some tips for good note taking from the University of Washington:

  • Take notes in complete thoughts, but abbreviate, reduce, and simplify
    • Don’t try to write the profs lecture word for word. You will fall behind and miss something important. Don’t copy overheads unless the professor gives you time to do so.
  • Separate and label the notes for each class
    • Start a new set of notes for each day, clearly separated from the day before; it makes your notes easier to study.
  • Make your notes easy to read
    • It’s easier to study your notes if you can read them.
  • Be an aggressive note taker
    • Sit where you can hear and see the professor without straining. Stay alert.
  • Start taking notes when the professor starts talking
    • Don’t wait for a big thought to strike you. You could easily become distracted and miss the big thought.
  • Isolate and learn the specialized vocabulary
    • Write down and highlight difficult or new words. Write definitions, or look them up later.
  • Separate facts from opinion and add your own ideas
    • Note what is fact and what is the professor’s opinion. Add your own thoughts; write notes directly to yourself.
  • Develop your own set of symbols. Use them to identify or emphasize various items in your notes.
    • Use circles, underlines, or other symbols that will be meaningful to you.
  • Include pictures, diagrams and other visuals
    • Copying diagrams or other visuals helps you to understand concepts later. We tend to think in terms of pictures.
  • Take notes on discussion
    • Take notes when meeting with your tutor. Use notes you’ve taken in lecture to generate discussion with your tutor group.

4 Types of Note-taking:

Please click on each style to get an overview of how to take these kinds of notes.

  1. Outline style
    1. Start large and work down to details. Separate main ideas and get more specific in a hierarchical format.
  2. Cornell notes
    1. This is a specific style of note-taking that separates your notes from key words and comments in different columns. At the end of the lecture/presentation, you summarize the most salient points at the bottom of the page.
  3. Web/spatial notes (also called bubble maps, concept maps)
    1. This style of note-taking is for more spatial (non-linear) learners. Web or bubble notes give you the freedom to connect ideas and develop sub-categories in whatever way you like. electricity_concept_map
  4. Sketch notes
    1. This is for my artistic, doodle-loving students! Sketch notes utilize drawings, sketches, and symbols to create more artistic notes. However, make sure you’re not spending time making it look pretty instead of listening to the lecture!

Friday, March 6, 2020: Unit 2 Pre and Finalize Essay

Today, we will be taking our unit 2 pre-assessment. The purpose of this assessment is for me to recognize the class’s strengths and weaknesses so I can teach more effectively throughout the semester. This will ensure that we don’t waste time on concepts you’ve already mastered and work on what you will need in order to best prepare for the EOC at the end of the semester.

With that said, please take this assessment seriously. Although it is not necessarily for a grade, this is an opportunity for you to show me what you already know!

Please click here to log in to your assessment!

Student ID: CCSD ID (Lunch #)

Client ID: gacobb (all lowercase)

Once you are done…

  1. Finish peer editing, if necessary
  2. Put the final touches on your essay – make sure you are submitting a clean copy with no comments, suggestions, etc. 
  3. Complete this week’s USATP assignment

As a reminder, USATP and your essay are due by 11:59 pm this Sunday, March 8th!

Thursday, March 5, 2020: Peer Editing and Essay Submission via Google Drive

Today, we will start with peer edits. You will read over three classmates’ essays and complete the peer revision checklist. Find out the Gmail addresses of your classmates and share your essay with them via Google Docs. Hit the blue “Share” button on the top right-hand corner of your screen. Type in your classmates’ emails and hit enter. Make sure you also click the pencil and provide editing (not commenting, not viewing) rights.

In order to edit your classmates’ work without altering their essay, you will make edit suggestions. When you open your classmate’s essay, click the “editing” option right under the blue share button. Click on “suggest.” When you type on your classmate’s essay, you should see your edits in green. This is useful for grammatical edits.

You can also highlight words, sentences, or passages and click on the plus (+) button that appears on the right and make comments. This is useful for content edits (for example, telling a classmate that their thesis is not written in parallel structure).

After your classmates have made edits, go back and review all of your feedback. From there, you can accept (check mark) or reject (X) suggestions. Please use the rest of class time to revise and edit your persuasive speech.

You will submit your completed final drafts of your essays via Google Drive.

Please click here to access our shared drive!

Make sure you submit to the correct class period! For the purposes of submission, please title your Google Doc your first and last name.

Essays submitted after 11:59 pm on Sunday, March 8th will result in a 50% late penalty.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020: Introduction and Conclusion



The introduction to a research paper can be the most challenging part of the paper to write. The length of the introduction will vary depending on the type of research paper you are writing. An introduction should announce your topic, provide context and a rationale for your work, before stating your research questions and hypothesis. Well-written introductions set the tone for the paper, catch the reader’s interest, and communicate the thesis statement.

  1. Announce your research topic. You can start your introduction with a few sentences which announce the topic of your paper and give an indication of the kind of research questions you will be asking. This is a good way to introduce your readers to your topic and pique their interest. The first few sentences should act as an indication of a broader problem which you will then focus in on more closely in the rest of your introduction, leading to your specific research questions.
  2. Define any key terms or concepts. It may be necessary for you to clarify any key terms or concepts early on in your introduction. You need to express yourself clearly throughout your paper so if you leave an unfamiliar term or concept unexplained, you risk your readers not having a clear understanding of your argument.

(From WikiHow)

Some suggestions on how to start your speech…

  • Pose a rhetorical question
  • Use imagery to pull your reader in (set the scene; opportunity for pathos!)
  • Start with a surprising or unusual fact/statistic
  • Provide a relevant anecdote
  • Reveal a common misconception
  • More examples here!

Be sure to consider your audience and purpose when writing the introduction!


Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:

In a general way,

  • Restate your topic and why it is important,
  • Restate your thesis/claim,
  • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  • Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don’t try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang (!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher’s maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:

  1. Tell what you’re going to tell them (introduction).
  2. Tell them (body).
  3. Tell them what you told them (conclusion).

(From Purdue OWL)

Tuesday, March 3, 2020: Outlining Your Essay

320px-joy_oil_gas_station_blueprintsPlease use the links below to aid in your writing of your embedded assessment outline. Think of this document as a “blueprint” for your essay – you are planning the organization, structure, and flow of your paper. This is the rough draft to your rough draft!

*Note: Please choose the ONE format that works for you, whether it’s a traditional or web outline.

Ms. Antonacci’s Sample Outline (Note: this is for the persuasive essay we will write later in the semester, but the outline format is the same.)

How to Write an Outline – Perdue OWL

How to Write an Outline – University of Richmond

**OUTLINES ARE DUE TODAY. Please work diligently; you should start working on your rough draft towards the end of the class period. 

Monday, March 2, 2020: Embedded Assessment

As usual, we will start with M.U.G. Monday today! Please be sure to get all of the corrections and notes.

With your group, please discuss what it means to be an American. To start, please flip to page 59 in Springboard so we can complete the freedom chart as a reference.

Using your graphic organizers from last week, we will start on our embedded assessments today. Please review the prompt below (p. 60 in Springboard):

Your assignment is to write a multi-paragraph essay that defines your interpretation of what it means to be an American. This essay should include different perspectives from the unit to help you develop a complex and thoughtful definition. Lastly, incorporate an iconic image into your essay.

You will define what it means to be an American, while using both Wes Moore’s perspectives. Consider:

  • What stories from The Other Wes Moore connected strongly with you? How can they help to add depth and dimension to your definition?
  • How will you take the complex elements of your definition and work them into a clear, focused thesis statement?
  • How can you sequence your ideas so that they work together to build a clear and convincing definition?

We will review the unpacked embedded assessment to ensure you have everything you need!


Week of February 24, 2020: Building up to the Embedded Assessment

This week, we will complete multiple activities and assignments to build up to your embedded assessment next week. As this is all pre-writing and brainstorming work, please do your best to be on time and present each day in class. Here’s a preview of what’s going on this week:

Monday: M.U.G. Monday and “Why does my education matter?”

Tuesday: Lit. Term Tuesday and Cross-impact Matrix

Wednesday: Writing Wednesday and continue cross-impact matrix

Thursday: Test Prep Thursday and Unit 1 Post Assessment

Friday: Viewpoint matrix

Please remember that I am available for tutoring every Tuesday and Thursday after school! Buses are provided!

Friday, February 14, 2020: OPTIC Analysis

Happy Valentine’s Day and last day before break! Today, we will take a break from The Other Wes Moore to complete an OPTIC analysis on two pieces of visual text. Analyzing a visual text means that whatever you’re analyzing is a visual medium – think photographs, political cartoons, book covers, paintings, sculptures, posters, and even TV, movies, and documentaries! To those of you hanging back from the field trip, don’t worry – your classmates are doing this same assignment at the High Museum 🙂

For the purposes of your assignment, please choose TWO of the visual texts below. Use the guiding questions within your graphic organizer to answer each question in the corresponding boxes of the OPTIC.

Overview: When you look at the cartoon, what is the first impression you receive? What do you think is happening in this cartoon?

Parts: ​What are the different parts or pieces of this cartoon? Break the cartoon into small pieces using artistic terms to explain what you see.

Theme: What is the theme of this cartoon? What is the message that is being conveyed through the visual?  What is the artist trying to “tell” you about their piece?  Be very specific with your explanation.

Interrelationships: How do all of the pieces in the cartoon relate to each other? What is the relationship between the central figures and the foreground/ background? What symbolism is present? What is the overall mood of the cartoon?

Conclusions: When searching for the conclusion of this cartoon, look for the artist’s purpose.  Why was this cartoon designed in this way?  Be specific.


Political Cartoon Options (please number on your paper):


1. by Mike Luckovich


2. by Steve Greenberg


3. by Monte Wolverton


4. by David Horsey


5. by Ed Stein (hint: consider what year this cartoon was drawn)


6. by Andy Singer


7. by Mike Luckovich


8. by David Horsey